Information and communication technologies, also known as ICT, include the Internet, phones, cable services, computers, and other hardware and digital technologies that facilitate the transfer of information from one interface to another. ICT is useful in business and economics because it increases the overall amount of data in the bazaar, which helps people make more informed, rational choices. In other words, the presence of ICT offers multiple avenues for researching information and checking the quality of information before making decisions. Howeveran organization that is considered as a huge and complex, whose operations and strategic focus could be greatly enhanced by the well-focussed application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to support improvements in productivity, management effectiveness and ultimately to gain the efficiency and effective competitive advantages in market place. Indeed factors that affecting the ICT strategy development can be categorized as success and failure factors. While discussing factors for success and failure, it is necessary to clarify the “opposite” effect of most factors. This means if the presence of a factor encourages success, the lack of it encourages failure (examples are, proper infrastructure and well-motivated staff). The converse is true such that if presence of a factor causes failure, its absence will cause success (examples are bureaucracy, poor project and change management).finally those Factors will be explained in details in this paper.
Motivation and need for research
Motivation and need of research is to find the previous researches and what they have been developed and the current implementation of the ICT. However motivation and research will allow you gain a clear image about what are you going to investigate on and based on that investigation you will be able to get the problems that researchers did not solve it or areas that need to be solved by the new researchers. In addition, the purpose of doing motivation and research in this paper to find the recently problems that were mentioned by previous researchers, in development of ICT strategiesand come out with new solution and suggestions of those problems.
- Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviours. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioural, cognitive, and social areas.
- Information and Communications Technology or (ICT), is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
- Business Goals, sometimes referred to as mission statements, are the things an organization hopes to achieve during its time in operation. Profitability is typically the primary goal of any business, but other goals have to be met on the path to financial success.
- Legacy Systemis an old method, technology, computer system, or application program. The legacy system may or may not remain in use. Even if it is no longer used, it may continue to impact the organization due to its historical role. Historic data may not have been converted into the new system format and may exist within the new system with the use of a customized schema crosswalk, or may exist only in a data warehouse.
A review on research done on above topic
Todays, high-ranking determiners know that ICT is infrastructure for every process in an organization and they understand that by developing it they can raise a wide variety of practicesthru education, exploration and management. By engaging in the expansion of strategic ICT seniordeterminers are confirming that their needs for problem answering and easing positive alteration,through the use of ICT, are known and combined within the organisation strategy. The effect is amore mature and effective deployment of ICT thru the organisation and for senior directors this canrise investment benefits in costs, productivity and the quality of information and services available.
According to ShefaliNandan (2010), CEO’s innovativeness, perceptions ,Organisational competencies (vision, value,technical ability and control), Vision, value, technical ability and control, Compatibility, perceived usefulness, external pressure, perceived ease of use, and organizational readiness, Strategic value of information technologies (IT), Productivity, profitability, and consumer surplus, Time of adoption, and Operational support and transactions processing are the Factors that determining adoption of ICT inSmall and Medium Enterprises.
On this research we divided factors that influencing on ICT strategy to two parts: internal and external.Internal parts consist of: business goals, available finance, legacy systems, business fulfilment, and the structure of the organisation. External parts consist of: Compliance with legislations,Compliance with external organisations, Auditing and Legal Issues,Competitors, Technological changes and the geography of clients.
Key implications for research and practices
There are internal and external factors that effect on ICT strategy development.
- Business Goals
If an Organisation has a business goal to reduce overall administrative costs, the ICT strategy might include the development of a system that reduce overall administrative costs, the ICT strategy might include the development of a system that replaces a current system that requires many hours of clerical data entry with a document scanning system. Also, The ICT strategy could include the development of online forms from the website for customers to fill in directly.
- Available Finance
The amount of finance that is available is important in determining what can be achieved. Company might have to phase the developments over several years to meet financial constraints. In addition, Cost benefit techniques have to be used, might have to consider initial costs against time.
- Legacy Systems
Any new system must be compatible with an organisation’s legacy systems. Organisation must be sure nice hardware and software make up the existing system.
- Business Fulfilment
ICT helps business fulfil its goals at all levels, from efficiency gains in day-to-day office work to very large new ICT systems.
- The Structure of the Organisation
The ways in organisation is structured and a variety of business functions managed will need to be taken into account when developing an ICT strategy.
Any information systems that needs to provide information to the right person at the right level in the right detail.
A formal hierarchical structure will require a method for ensuring information is passed up and down the structure appropriately and in a timely manner.
An information system should enable good communication within the organisation. The design of an information system must take account of information flow around the organisation.
- Compliance with external organisations
- Compliance with legislations
- The Geography of Clients
The geography of clients, where they are located will influence the ICT strategy. A decision to expand the business, by developing into, e-commerce where customers can specify and order a good online, will expand their potential customer base worldwide.
Government rules and regulations lay down how data should be managed and Organisations must be in compliance with these regulations.
1. An important area of compliance is software licensing. It is vital that an organisation purchases an adequate number of licences for the number of users.
2. Data Protection Regulation: wide-range of security measures need to be taken into consideration standard firewall and antivirus software are not good enough. Extensive and robust backup and recovery procedures must be established.
3. Freedom of Information Act.
4. Computer Misuse Act: It it important that workers are adequately trained and security measures are in place to ensure that employees do no breach the Computer Misuse Act.
- Auditing and Legal Issues
Any ICT development must take account of legal and audit requirements. These will vary from business to business.
An Audit is a check. An auditor is an independent person whose job is to check the account of an organisation to ensure that they comply with all laws and regulations and that no fraud has taken place. An auditor must check that an organisation has procedures in place that provide protection against the misuse of ICT systems and data. Audit trail is a system designed with the work of the auditor in mind.
Audit trail keeps track of :
1. What has happened in a system
2. Who has been using it
3. For how long they have been using it
4. Who did what with what data.
The maintenance of audit trails does not come without a price. Additional computer storage will be needed to hold the extra data of the rail. The need to record data in an audit trail may well slow down transaction processing.
All in all, both internal and external factors was category that most research used that, but there are some others type of categories for groups definition of these factors. On this article we tried to import most of the factors that effect on ICT strategic development.